Our voice is used to communicate but it also defines our identity. Thus, a voice alteration or a complete speech loss can cause emotional and social issues. Patients suffering from an advanced stage of laryngeal cancer often have to undergo a total surgical removal of the human voice source, the larynx.
To recover the ability to speak, a prosthesis, mimicking the vocal folds, is usually placed between the trachea and the oesophagus. The exhaled air crosses a small tube and produces a substitute voice. Unfortunately, the created voice is of poor quality: it is weak, with a low fundamental frequency (pitch) and sounds mechanical. It has a huge psychological impact, especially on women, who generally struggle with their new masculine voice. In addition, the limited lifetime of the devices, due to biofilm coming from mucus/material interactions, forces a frequent device replacement.
To date, there is no voice prosthesis lasting more than 3 months and able to reconstruct a natural-sounding human voice.
In this context, bird vocal system should attract attention. First, their vocal repertoire is incredibly diverse, with pitch spanning from 100 to 12 000 Hz, compared to only 85 to 255 Hz in human speech. Moreover, their unique vocal organ, the syrinx, produces sounds from the vibration of membranes, located in the wall of the syrinx. The human vocal folds are perpendicular to the trachea, meaning that even in a resting open position, they are always partially obstructing the trachea. However in birds, the labia are on the walls of the syrinx, meaning that when the syringeal muscles are inactive, the labia are retracted and the two syrinx cavities are almost completely open. To date, the prostheses proposed to laryngectomized patients are mimicking the human vocal folds, with a one-way valve perpendicularly positioned in the tube and always partially obstructing it. The large contact area between the silicone valve and the air increases the chance of colonisation by a mixed biofilm of bacteria and yeasts.
Designing prostheses based on the avian vocal organ would not only provide alternatives to reduce biofilm formation, but could also produce higher frequency sounds, leading to voices that will sound more humane.
We use network science and data analysis to decipher collective phenomena at biological and social scales
We are interested in discovering novel bioactive microbial metabolites. Microbial metabolites play important roles in medicine and they are a key source of antibiotics, anticancer agents or immunosuppressants. We develop sequencing, bioinformatics and synthetic biology methods to rapidly detect and characterize novel genes responsible for the biosynthesis of cryptic microbial metabolites. We also work on involving the general public in helping to source new medicines through citizen science projects.
Our research revolves around bacteria and their viruses, phages.
Facing the abundance and diversity of their viruses, bacteria and archaea have developed multiple lines of defense that can be referred to as « prokaryotic immune systems« . Our research focuses on these anti-phage immune systems. We are trying to understand evolutionary patterns and molecular mechanisms of these systems but also how to use them for medical applications. We work at several scales: from computational genomic analysis on thousands of prokaryotic genomes to experimental molecular genetics and diverse microbiology tools.
We develop research projects that place the body in motion at the heart of learning by leveraging digital technologies.
By combining Science & Design, we explore movement and gesture for learning in Education, Sport, Health & Art. In front of a digitized environment composed of screens (mouse & keyboard), which freeze the body, we are working at reversing this current paradigm. Through scientific research and in collaboration with field-actors, we then design tangible interfaces with embedded sensors.
The Motion Lab is an interdisciplinary community of designers and scientists who share a common vision of the significant values of practice-based research.
We use the principles of commons-based peer-production to create knowledge from bottom-up citizen science projects.
À la rencontre entre Science et Design, Premiers Cris fédère une communauté interdisciplinaire dans un processus de recherche collaborative. Cette démarche alliant méthodologie scientifique et créativité, valorise l’expérience des acteurs et actrices de la Petite Enfance et tend à repenser les pratiques de recherche.
Premiers Cris œuvre ainsi à améliorer l’accueil des jeunes enfants et à réduire les inégalités de développement dès la Petite Enfance.
Facilitateur de projets de recherche-action collaborative
Grâce à la mise en oeuvre d’un processus de recherche collaborative et innovant, Premiers Cris :
• développe des projets de recherche collaborative grâce à sa méthodologie alliant Science et Design permettant d’élargir le champ des connaissances scientifiques dans le domaine de la petite enfance, et notamment d’aider à tester des interventions de manière écologique auprès de jeunes et très jeunes enfants ;
• associe les professionnelles de la petite enfance
à la recherche en permettant une transmission des connaissances scientifiques sur le jeune enfant ainsi qu’un processus de valorisation des professionnelles, qui en retour feront un travail de plus grande qualité avec les enfants.
Qui sommes-nous ?
Premiers Cris a été créé en septembre 2018 par Lisa Jacquey, docteure en sciences cognitives et Marion Voillot, doctorante en design. Jeunes chercheuses aux compétences complémentaires, Lisa et Marion portaient toutes deux l’envie de faire de la recherche autrement, soit de manière plus collaborative (avec l’ensemble des acteurs de la petite enfance) et plus écologique (dans l’environnement naturel de l’enfant). Depuis ses débuts, Premiers Cris est hébergé et soutenu par le CRI.
Pour en savoir plus : https://www.premierscris.cri-paris.net/
The Lindner team’s main efforts rely on years of investment in building an intellectual and experimental framework based on interdisciplinary approaches, harnessing physics and computer science and on welcoming young researchers to address key questions in Life Sciences with Systems and Synthetic Biology approaches, mainly focusing on Escherichia coli as the simplest (yet still not fully understood) model organism. Focal projects include study of phenotypic variability, ageing, evolution of cooperation, probing RNA structure in vivo and RNA scaffolding.
We also develop open and citizen science projects extended from antimicrobial drug discovery and democratizing DNA detection to supporting Open Collaborative Efforts for Autism spectrum Network (OCEAN).
The team is at the core of building the CRI Collaboratory research effort and contributes to developing the CRI undergraduate and graduate programs as well as outreach learning through research programs across the globe. For the past 13 years, the team mentored the Paris Bettencourt iGEM team.
The "Teachers as Researchers" programme: Citizen science to engage educators in the production of structured practice-based evidence at a large-scale
Every day, millions of educators try out new practices to improve education. To be effective, they need to build upon each other’s successes and failures. However, collaboratively producing evidence about their practices that can be trustworthy, compared across contexts, and aggregated at a large scale is challenging.
Since 2019, we are developing the “Teachers as Researchers” programme, a citizen science project to engage educators in the collaborative production of practice-based evidence as they daily experiment with new educational practices.
The "Teachers as Researchers" programme trains volunteer educators to create communities and to facilitate regular workshops in which community members follow a methodology designed to motivate collaboration and reflection about their practices while at the same time producing structured records of practice-based evidence. The work of communities is undertaken in a collaborative publication platform to promote wide collaboration across communities and to feed a shared and public database of practice-based evidence (https://plateforme.profschercheurs.org).
Affiliate faculty are researchers who are in close collaboration for CRI Research Collaboratory - they co-mentor a PhD student or a postdoc working conjointly at the CRI Research Collaboratory, collaborate with a CRI researcher on a specific, ongoing, funded project or are actively taking part in the intellectual life of the Collaboratory.